不同的灾难,同样的主题:恶作剧和误传在圣母院火灾后在网上传播

一次又一次,一个重大的新闻事件造成了一个巨大的混乱,以清除社会媒体。

  • 出版 16 April 2019
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The social media-borne hoaxes that now infamously spread online like diseases after major news events returned in force in the immediate aftermath of the 15 April 2019 fire that heavily damaged the iconic Notre Dame cathedral in Paris,法国。

阴谋论者立即将这场火灾归咎于伊斯兰恐怖分子,并将其与911事件进行了比较。一些人分享录音,他们谎称抓获穆斯林在现场高喊伊斯兰口号。其他人则吹捧一些视频和图片,据说这些视频和图片显示穆斯林在庆祝大教堂被摧毁并嘲笑它。还有一些人认为,圣母院火灾和一个实际发生在2016年的挫败的恐怖阴谋之间不存在联系。

The hoaxes probably aren't going away any time soon,大卫卡罗尔说,纽约市新学院媒体设计副教授,社会媒体平台的著名批评家。After mass casualty events in the past like theLas Vegasshooting and the deadly white supremacist rally in夏洛茨维尔,像Facebook这样的科技公司,Twitter,谷歌得到坏新闻让恶作剧在他们的觉醒中蔓延。尽管科技巨头们努力改进,the Notre Dame fire showed it's not enough.

卡罗尔告诉我们:“注意力经济是经济动力和激励的核心。”"If we just think of [the platforms'] economic incentives,they were designed to maximize and monetize attention.Attention is the resource that is harvested and mined without any care for whether it is good or bad."

2019年4月16日blog post,Twitter执行官唐纳德·希克斯和大卫·加斯卡说,该平台正在采取更积极的方式来处理滥用内容。However as Poynterreported,“Twitter没有严格的政策来减少虚假帖子的覆盖范围。该公司采取的行动之一是删除冒充新闻机构的虚假账户。But that policy can be gamed — and it isn't applied uniformly."

阴谋论有一种吸引人们注意力的方法。"You can establish a good audience for yourself as a conspiracy theorist" on social media platforms,Carroll added.

Sometimes the hoax themes are明确地 种族主义者,针对特定群体。巴黎圣母院的火,媒体的牛虻将手指指向穆斯林社区,声称没有证据表明火灾是恐怖行为,即使是法国当局宣布这起事件很可能是事故的结果,没有被调查为纵火。

在路易斯安那州有一个真正的恐怖分子烧毁了三座黑人教堂。你在新闻里见过他的脸和名字多少次了?”奥马尔·苏莱曼说,Islamic studies professor at Southern Methodist University and founder of the Yaqeen Institute for Islamic Research in Texas.“但由于穆斯林恐怖主义的观念非常普遍,我们现在集体受到指责,因为即使是一个穆斯林也与之无关。这已经达到了一种超越罪恶感的荒谬程度。这只是捏造的。”

AuthoritieschargedHolden Matthews,21,2019年4月15日,路易斯安那州三座历史悠久的黑人教堂在10天内被大火烧毁,引发了仇恨犯罪。

Suleiman pointed to conspiratorial comments made by media personality Glenn Beck,谁推测on his radio show that,"If this [fire] was started by Islamists,我不认为你会发现这件事”,并把这件事与9/11恐怖袭击纽约世贸中心的事件作了比较。

“像格伦·贝克这样的人可以把穆斯林和大教堂的燃烧联系起来,没有任何事实,也没有任何分析,然而,它使穆斯林社区陷入了一种怀疑的恶性循环。"It's hard to disassociate this with what's happening with [U.S.Rep.] Ilhan Omar (D-Minnesota).如果连一位穆斯林女议员都不能摆脱与美国总统911事件的牵连,那么,我们怎么能从那些以耸人听闻和阴谋为生的博主那里得到更多的期望呢?”

苏莱曼指的是2019年4月12日鸣叫由唐纳德·特朗普总统发布,与奥马尔并列,在美国服役的前两名穆斯林妇女之一。国会和第一个戴头巾或宗教头巾的人,with video footage of the 9/11 attacks.Omar received an increased number of死亡威胁after Trump's tweet was posted.

2019年3月,在克赖斯特彻奇发生大规模枪击事件后,我们在Twitter上询问了反穆斯林仇恨言论,新西兰一名白人至上主义者被指控在两座清真寺的枪击事件中杀害50人。发言人伊恩·普朗基特当时告诉我们,“我们的政策不允许可恨的行为和/或极端主义”,但当我们问到原因时,例如,known white supremacist David Duke still has an active account,we were told the company doesn't have any comment on individual cases.

恶作剧反映了毫无根据的主题,即圣母院火灾是恐怖主义迅速蔓延的结果。一位推特用户发布了一段火灾现场的视频,并错误地声称穆斯林在高喊阿拉伯语短语“阿拉胡阿克巴”,意思是“上帝是伟大的”。实际上,法国当局听到旁观者高喊“阿列兹前卫”。which roughly translates to get out of harm's way.


在另一个视频中,now-deleted鸣叫,audio of people shouting "alahu akbar" was superimposed on video footage of the cathedral burning to again give the misleading impression that Muslim people were celebrating the fire.ASNBC News指出,“音频来自一个多年前的视频,这是用户在谷歌搜索“真主阿拉胡阿克巴尖叫”时的第一个结果。

Anti-Muslim blogger Pamela Geller also永存的毫无根据的说法是穆斯林在火灾后庆祝。盖勒分享了一篇文章,声称这篇文章展示了那些有“阿拉伯[穆斯林]名字”的人在Facebook上用微笑或笑表情符号来回应这一事件。

但作为嗡嗡新闻指出,trying to lay culpability at the feet of the Muslim community using Facebook reactions is both facile and unverifiable.“在圣母院的火灾中,笑面表情符号显然是少数,不可能知道人们为什么选择特定的表情符号,or for that matter the religion of people reacting to a Facebook video.核实账目的真实性也很困难。Bottom line: Facebook emojis on a video do not tell us anything about a group of people."

That same post from Geller also featured an image of two smiling men ducking under police tape with the burning cathedral in the background,在没有证据的情况下声称圣战分子" celebrating the destruction.

许多Twitter帐户共享2016 story关于一个被挫败的恐怖阴谋,涉及一辆停在大教堂附近的载有煤气罐的汽车,给人错误的印象,那件事发生在火灾发生的日子里。


在另一个例子中,阴谋贩子声称在摄像机上看到的一名消防员是个恶棍,穿着长袍的人。

在最知名的社交媒体平台snafus中,people watching livestreamed footage of the Notre Dame fire on YouTube were mistakenly fed background information for the 9/11 terror attacks by YouTube's algorithm.ASThe Associated Press reported,“背景说明是由YouTube最近发布的一个系统发布的,该系统旨在打击众所周知的有关登月或9/11等事件的阴谋。在这种情况下,the algorithm might have had the opposite effect,这引发了人们对火灾原因以及火灾背后的幕后黑手的猜测。”

卡罗尔同意:“似乎更好的技术解决方案应该是,随着突发新闻事件的发生,为了提醒人们简单的规则,like wait for authorities to provide verified reports and be aware that conspiracy theories are going to happen,don't fall for them when they do," he said.“他们试图自动纠正(这个问题),结果使事情变得更糟,因为算法失效了。”

卡罗尔说,他对即将到来的总统竞选将在一个引人注目的政治环境中引发这些问题持乐观态度。辩论需要发生,他说,围绕平台的职责,how best to address the issue,哪些类型的法规可以解决一些问题。

"Some of it comes down to the fact that [the platforms] don't employ humans to do what reporters do,卡罗尔告诉我们:“这意味着,在我看来,这些公司的员工似乎并不存在这样的情况:他们坐在平台上,寻找威胁模型,并主动应对这些模型。”“这些都是外包的。Where is the in-house defense layer?好像不在那里。”

YouTube(谷歌旗下)在一份声明中表示The 纽约时报那“这些[事实检查]面板是通过算法触发的,我们的系统有时会做出错误的调用。”面板,作为时代 reported,于2018年夏季宣布,"as part of a broader effort to root out misinformation" and would appear "alongside videos on a small number of well-established historical and scientific topics that have often been subject to misinformation,比如登月和俄克拉荷马城爆炸。”

For Suleiman,2019年3月前往基督城帮助埋葬清真寺枪击受害者,这个问题既紧迫又涉及公共安全。He has seen first hand the effects of hateful online rhetoric.

"You cannot see this issue disconnected from the elements around it," he told us.“我们正面临西方针对穆斯林少数民族的最严重的恐怖袭击,同时,总统还煽动他的追随者反对我们国会前两位穆斯林妇女中的一位,并将她们与恐怖分子联系起来。”